Características de las personas que consumaron suicidio en la ciudad de Santa Marta (Colombia) durante el año 2002: un informe de casos

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Ceballos Ospino, Guillermo Augusto
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Universidad del Magdalena
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Background: Although the suicide is a growing phenomenon in the world there are not many studies about it in Colombia and particularly in Santa Marta. Investigations show suicide rate in the Americas among 2 and 13 per 100.000 people, nearly, in Colombia the suicide rate have changed in an important number in the last 20 years among 3 and 5 per 100.000 people. Meanwhile the rate in Santa Marta is among 3.3 and 7.8 per 100.000 people in the last few years. Objective: Descriptive study. The registered suicides by the Legal Medicine and Forensic Science Institute were identified. The additional information was taken from the victim’s family’sinterviews. Results: A total of 14 suicide cases were reported. This represents a rate of 3.3 suicides per 100.000 people. The range age of the victims was between 14 and 44 year-old with average of 24.2 years (SD 9.8) Nine cases (64.2%) were male and five (38.2%) were female. The scholastic showed that seven cases (50%) had a secondary school certificate, five (35.7%) unfinished secondary school and two (14.3%) studied Junior High. Twelve cases (85.7%) were single and two (14.3%) had a stable partner. Ten cases (71.4%) lived in low stratum and four (28.6%) lived in medium-low stratum. Conclusions: The suicide rate in Santa Marta is comparable to the national average and it is in the reported rank for the American continent. It is needed mayor investigation on this public health problem and it is necessary to design preventive programs, particularly, for high-risk population.
Antecedentes: A pesar de ser el suicidio un fenómeno creciente en el mundo existen pocos estudios del mismo en Colombia y, en particular, en la ciudad de Santa Marta. Las investigaciones señalan que la tasa estimada en las Américas oscila entre el dos y 13 por 100.000 habitantes aproximadamente, en Colombia las tasas de suicidio en han variado en forma importante durante los últimos 20 años oscilando entre tres y cinco por cada 100.000 habitantes. Mientras que la tasa para la ciudad de Santa Marta ha oscilado entre 3.3 y 7.8 por cada 100.000 habitantes en años recientes. Objetivo: Evaluar las características de las personas que consumaron el suicidio en Santa Marta, Colombia, durante el año 2002. Método: Estudio descriptivo. Se identificaron los casos de suicidios registrados por el Instituto de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses. Información adicional se obtuvo mediante una entrevista estructurada a familiares de las víctimas. Resultados: Un total de 14 casos de suicidio fue informado. Esto representa una tasa de 3.3 suicidios por cada 100.000 habitantes. La edad de las víctimas se encontró entre 14 y 44 años, con un promedio de 24.2 (DE 9.8). Nueve casos (64,2%) eran varones y cinco (35.7%) mujeres. La escolaridad mostró que siete casos (50%) tenían bachillerato completo, cinco (35.7%) bachillerato incompleto y dos (14.3%) cursaron básica primaria. Doce sujetos (85.7%) estaban solteros y dos (14.3%) vivían en unión libre y diez casos (71.4%) eran estrato socioeconómico bajo y 4 (28.6%) de estrato medio bajo. Conclusiones: La tasa de suicidio en Santa Marta es comparable al promedio nacional y se encuentra en el rango informado para el continente americano. Se necesita mayor investigación de este problema de salud pública. SUMMARYBackground: Although the suicide is a growing phenomenon in the world there are not many studies about it in Colombia and particularly in Santa Marta. Investigations show suicide rate in the Americas among 2 and 13 per 100.000 people, nearly, in Colombia the suicide rate have changed in an important number in the last 20 years among 3 and 5 per 100.000 people. Meanwhile the rate in Santa Marta is among 3.3 and 7.8 per 100.000 people in the last few years. Objective: Descriptive study. The registered suicides by the Legal Medicine and Forensic Science Institute were identified. The additional information was taken from the victim’s family’s interviews. Results: A total of 14 suicide cases were reported. This represents a rate of 3.3 suicides per 100.000 people. The range age of the victims was between 14 and 44 year-old with average of 24.2 years (SD 9.8) Nine cases (64.2%) were male and five (38.2%) were female. The scholastic showed that seven cases (50%) had a secondary school certificate, five (35.7%) unfinished secondary school and two (14.3%) studied Junior High. Twelve cases (85.7%) were single and two (14.3%) had a stable partner. Ten cases (71.4%) lived in low stratum and four (28.6%) lived in medium-low stratum. Conclusions: The suicide rate in Santa Marta is comparable to the national average and it is in the reported rank for the American continent. It is needed mayor investigation on this public health problem and it is necessary to design preventive programs, particularly, for high-risk population. Key words: Suicide, Prevalence, Adolescents, and Adults.
Keywords
Suicide, Prevalence, Adolescents, and Adults, Suicidio, Prevalencia, Adolescentes, Adultos.
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